[4], Some of the early Janas of the Rig Veda can be strongly attributed to Punjab. After the defeat of Porus in Greek sources, most armies that he had encountered had come to submit, with very few refusing to do so such as the people of Sangala who were massacred. In the case of Punjab, the local Janapadas were semi-independent but were expected to obey orders and pay homage to the empire. Nevertheless, the use of violence in the Indian Independence movement became unpopular after the execution of the trio on the 23 March 1932. [2], Punjab and the surrounding areas are the location of the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation, also known as the Harappan Civilisation. A highlight of religious controversy during this time was that of the Ahmaddiya movement. In southern Punjab the Banu Munnabih established themselves based at Multan. [62] In 1858, under the terms of the Queen's Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Punjab came under the direct rule of Britain. Many Sikhs and Hindus lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east, and so partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence. In 1001 he defeated Jayapala at the Battle of Peshawar and seized Hindu Shahi territory north of the river Sindh. [16], Jayapala's son and grandson, Anandapala and Trilochanapala respectively, resisted Mahmud for another quarter of a century and by around 1021 the Ghaznavids controlled most of the Punjab. During this time, there was an increase in the population of Sikhs as well. Sikh Empire. Some Pahari majority parts of the East Punjab were also merged with Himachal Pradesh as a result of the movement. The rule of the Sayyid dynasty was characterised by frequent revolts by the Hindus of the various Punjabi doabs. IX- Upper Burma, Assam and Chittagong from maps of constable's1893 hand atlas.jpg, Plate 31. A short time before his death, Guru Gobind Singh ordered him to conquer Punjab and gave him a letter that commanded all Sikhs to join him. [29], In 1173 the Ghurid dynasty replaced the Ghaznavids in Ghazni, and under Muhammad of Ghor they began expanding eastwards. Intermittent wars between various kingdoms was characteristic of this time, except in times of temporary unification under centralised Indian Empires or invading powers. [12][clarification needed] He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. By 985, the traveller Al-Maqdisi noted that the city of Multan was Shia, that the Friday sermon was in the name of the Fatimid and all decisions are taken in accordance with his commands.[16]. The Punjab was annexed by the East India Company in 1849. Under the Sayyid dynasty, Punjab, Dipalpur, and parts of Sindh had come under the rule of the Sultanates. Economically it transformed the Punjab into the richest farming area of India, socially it sustained the power of large landowners and politically it encouraged cross-communal co-operation amongst land owning groups. The last Mughal, Bahādur Shah II (reigned 1837–57), was exiled to Burma by the British. In his second attempt, Bahlul Lodi captured Delhi and founded the Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi sultanates. The last Turk Shahi ruler, Lagaturman, is said to have been imprisoned by his brahmin Vizier, Kallar, who went on to establish the Hindu Shahi dynasty. [35] The Lodi dynasty reached its peak under Bahlul's grandson Sikander Lodi. The Islamic values that were idealised by the Delhi sultanates were ones that brought men in accordance with God's command by cultivating moral values in the governing authorities. A notable account was that of the Greek ambassador Megasthenes who had visited the Mauryan capital of Pataliputra. PTOLEMAEUS, Claudius; Bernadus SYLVANUS, 1511. [citation needed], After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great turned his sights to India. Sabuktigin's son Mahmud succeeded his father in 997, and began a series of raids into northern India. Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi. Although nominally part of the Bengal Presidency it was administratively independent. Porus' kingdom of Paurava had been given back to him, along with many other territories which were gifted to him by Alexander himself. Various records exist of Samudra Gupta's conquest, showing that nearly all of North India and a portion of Southern India had been under Gupta rule. This category has the following 10 subcategories, out of 10 total. Kharak Singh (b.1801, d.1840), Eldest son of Ranjit Singh. [71] Terrorist attacks targeted members of the Sikh majority that opposed the creation of Khalistan and wished to stay with India. Nevertheless, Alexander made little effort to retain the land he had conquered. Sudas was supported by the Vedic Rishi Vasishtha, while his former Purohita, the Rishi Viswamitra, sided with the confederation of ten tribes. [67], An important event of the British Raj in Punjab was the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919. This was fought between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. [34] During this time, various regions such as Bengal, Deccan, Malwa, and others had gained independence from the Sultanate. The extremists carried out various attacks, including placing a bomb in an Air India flight over the Atlantic Ocean, killing more than 300 people. The Imperial government exercised control over the finances of Punjab and took the majority of the income for itself. After two years of gaining supporters, Banda Singh Bahadur initiated an agrarian uprising by breaking up the large estates of Zamindar families and distributing the land to the peasants. Other terrorist attacks had continued, notably against the Punjab police and others, in which more Sikhs were killed than other groups. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus when the latter invaded. The Mauryans had an autocratic and centralised administration system, aided by a council of ministers, and also a well-established espionage system. The Khalji dynasty reworked the tax system in India. The Banu Munnabih later gave allegiance to the Abbasids, and remained unchallenged for over a century. Harsha's grandfather was Adityavardhana, a feudatory ruler of Thanesvar in eastern Punjab. Besides the aforementioned sites, hundreds of ancient settlements have been found throughout the region, spanning an area of about 100 miles. In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus 500 elephants. The following 94 files are in this category, out of 94 total. They were called mehtars or mehton kingdoms due to their relative relations with each other. Various road and irrigation projects were taken under his rule, and the rule had patronised Persian culture. The Ghaznavids were a dynasty of Turkic slave-soldiers... sfn error: no target: CITEREFArjomand2012 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFLeviSela2010 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBosworth1963 (. [63], Administratively, colonial rule instated a system of bureaucracy and measure of the law. [17] At the beginning Hindu Shahi rule extended from Kabul to the Chenab river. When offered a choice between conversion to Islam and death, he chose to die rather than compromise his principles and was executed. Porus and Taxiles were longtime enemies, and the latter saw Alexander's arrival as a way to settle old scores. The History of the Punjab refers to the history of the Punjab region, a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Coins of the Hindu Shahis, which later inspired Abbasid coins in the Middle East. The Punjab opioid dependence survey 2015 reveals a grim picture of addiction crisis. In 977, Sabuktigin, the Samanid governor of Ghazni, established an independent kingdom in western Afghanistan with Ghazni as its capital. Its influence over the rural population severely limited the local appeal and reach of both the Indian National Congress and Muslim League. II- Chinese Turkistan, Kashmir & Jamu of maps of Constables 1893 hand atlas.jpg, Plate 24. The Ghaznavid dynasty, as they would be known, were a Persianate[19] Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin,[20][a][21] When the Ghaznavids began expanding eastwards they came into conflict with the Hindu Shahi. Punjab and much of the Indo-Gangetic plain were still under the hold of Pushyamitra's empire as well as under the subsequent smaller offshoots that had asserted its claim over the region. The influence of Durrani monarch continued in Northern India up to his death. [32], The Khalji dynasty was succeeded by the Tughluq dynasty, which had ruled from 1320 to 1413. After the British victories at the battles of the Sutlej in 1845–46, the army and territory of the boy Raja Duleep Singh was cut down. Colonial rule had a profound impact on all areas of Punjabi life. Nau Nihal Singh (b.1821, d.1840), Grandson of Ranjit Singh. Chandra Gupta's reign was an unsettled one, but under his son, Samudra Gupta, the empire reached supremacy over India roughly similar to the proportions that the Maurya Empire had exercised before. Sect. The captured Sikhs were beheaded, their heads stuffed with hay, mounted on spears and carried on a procession to Delhi en route to the Qutb Minar. [12], Chandragupta's rule was very well organised. [7], Pre-Islamic Punjab was also a centre of learning for Ancient India, and many ashrams and universities. [18] [15], Between 982-5, the power of the Banu Munnabih began to erode and Multan was conquered by Halam b. Shayban on behalf of the Fatimid caliph based in Egypt. The map shows the whole of the newly formed Punjab Province, formerly the territory of the Sikh Empire, which had been annexed by the British East India Company in 1849, following the Second Anglo-Sikh War. [12], Mauryan rule was advanced for its time, and foreign accounts of Indian cities mention many temples, libraries, universities, gardens, and parks. After the victory of Panipat, Ahmad Shah Durrani became the primary ruler over Northern India. Rig Vedic Janas such as the Druhyus, Anus, Purus, Yadus, Turvasas, Bharatas, and others were associated in Punjab and the Indo-Gangetic plain. Yet subsequent events led to a double alliance, one by marriage and another politically, between the Afghan King and the Mughal Emperor. [46] The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in defiance of Aurangzeb, who attempted to install Ram Rai as new guru. In the mid 9th century, the Hindu Shahi dynasty supplanted the Buddhist Turk Shahi dynasty in Kabul. [5] Sudas had earlier defeated Samvaran and ousted him from Hastinapur. For purposes of control, the British established new forms of communication and transportation, including post systems, railways, roads, and telegraphs. With the help of the small Janapadas of Punjab and Sindh, he had gone on to conquer much of the North West. R. M. Chopra, "The Legacy of the Punjab", (1997), Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta. [73], In recent times there has been rampant smuggling of drugs. [50][full citation needed] He ruled the territory between the Sutlej river and the Yamuna river, established a capital in the Himalayas at Lohgarh and struck coinage in the names of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh. This period goes back to the first interglacial period in the second Ice Age, from which remnants of stone and flint tools have been found. Nevertheless, by the sixth century, the Huns had established themselves and Toramana and his son Mihirakula, who has been described to be a Saivite Hindu, had ruled over the approximate areas of Punjab, Rajputana, and Kashmir. [74] The menace has increased to gigantic proportions in recent times. X- Bombay, Aden and Socotra from maps of constantines 1893 hand atlas.jpg, Plate 33. [57] The rebuilt Harminder Sahib was destroyed, and the pool was filled with cow entrails, again.

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