our identify the frequency of use of certain areas of our website and to identify preferences. media provider. To learn about the cookies we use and information about your preferences Pixel tags or clear GIFs, also known as web beacons, are transparent graphical images placed on a Step 5: Multiply the final two numbers to solve for Q, the discharge in GPM. popularity Social media providers have their own terms Step 2: Square the measured diameter. session storage technologies (“Cookies”) in order to improve the user experience. Multiply 79.3 psi by 144 square inches per square foot, which equals 11,419 pounds per square foot. Some are obvious, such as pounds per square inch, but even the SI standard Pascal is actually an expression of one Newton per square meter. By using our application you agree to our use Pressure is a scalar quality reflecting how force acts on a surface. A single 2.5-inch port is used with a measured inside diameter of 2.55 inches. this information to analyze your use of the website, compile reports on activity for us, and perform those Bernoulli’s original equation must be modified so that it accounts for the friction produced when water flows through a hydrant. are purchased and in what amount). 2.55 x 2.55 = 6.5025. Feel free to jump straight to the formula, followed by a step-by-step process and a calculator. In addition, always consult with a professional, such as a life safety engineer, contractor, and your local authority having jurisdiction (AHJ; a fire marshal or other government official) before making any changes to your fire protection or life safety system. Put simply, that means if the orifice is 2.5 inches, the blade should be about 1.25 inches out. jump straight to the formula, followed by a step-by-step process and a calculator. PSI can’t be directly converted to GPM; these are two different units of measure. Following these simple instructions helps inspectors deliver peace of mind that fire hydrants will perform as expected during a fire. In the market for pitot gauges? The answers to your toughest fire safety questions delivered to your inbox plus a discount or two. You may change your The material presented on Thoughts on Fire and QRFS.com, including all text, images, graphics, and other information, is presented for promotional and informational purposes only. Step 1: Multiply the constant 29.84 times the coefficient of discharge (cd). Our website captures some information about you automatically utilizing background local storage and In other words, if your pitot pressure is 28 psi and your orifice size is 4, your theoretical discharge according to the table is 2,526 GPM. Our website uses cookies. But in reality, the equation and chart can be confusing—and QRFS phones are constantly ringing with the question: How do I do this right? Q = 29.84 x √P x D² x C Q = flow-rate in GPM P = velocity pressure in psi D = orifice diameter in inches C = coefficient of flow device files or other pieces of data which are downloaded or stored on your computer or other device, that of Google. Source: NFPA 291: Recommended Practice for Fire Flow Testing And Marking Of Hydrants. By poking your fingers inside the outlet, you can determine if it’s smooth and rounded or square and sharp. Source: Fire Engineering. Now that you understand where the numbers come from, let’s practice solving the equation. The discharge coefficient varies with the type of outlet on the hydrant. When If the coefficient of your hydrant outlet is 0.9, multiplying 2,526 x 0.9 finds the actual rate of flow: 2,273.4 GPM. When the transition is square and sharp as in the second drawing, the hydrant has a coefficient of 0.8. But in order to understand the results, the PSI readings need to be converted to GPM, the standard measurement of water flow. 174.6 x 7.8740 = 1,375 GPM. Theoretical Discharge through Circular Orifices Formula. PSI measures pressure and GPM measures flow rate. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. The discharge coefficient, or “c,” varies with the type of outlet on the hydrant. Conversion Calculator for: Pressure, Flow, Length, Area, Volume, Precipitation Rate, Temperature. Step 3 29.84 x 0.9 = 26.856, Step 2: Square the measured diameter. transaction. Part 1, #366 – Arena Fire Protection & Life Safety Evaluation Guide, #223 – Fire Sprinkler System Pipe Material: NFPA Requirements and the Pros and Cons of Steel, #121 – What Facility Managers Need to Inspect on a Fire Sprinkler System, Part 5, #153 – How to Remove Concrete Anchors: The Complete Guide, #100 - Residential Fire Sprinkler Systems: Guide to Installing Home Fire Sprinklers (Part 1), #204 – Fire Hose Adapters and Fittings: The Definitive Guide, Guides for Fire Protection Equipment and Fire Safety Systems, Standpipe Systems and Fire Department Connections. 2.55 x 2.55 = 6.5025, Step 3: Multiply those two numbers: 26.856 x 6.5025 = 174.6, Step 4: Find the square root of 62 psi, which is 7.8740, Step 5: Multiply the final two numbers to solve for Q, the discharge in GPM. use and privacy policies, and we encourage you to review those policies whenever you visit their websites or interact with their platforms. Q = flow-rate in GPM P = velocity pressure in psi K = K-factor of flow device. Previously, we’ve offered a detailed guide on how to use a pitot gauge for hydrant flow testing. For instance, red hydrants typically have a rated capacity of less than 500 GPM and light blue hydrants have a rated capacity of more than 1,500 GPM. #240 – Pitot Gauges: How Do I Calculate the PSI to GPM Conversion? analysis to of cookies. We use these items on our Site to permit us, for example, to count users who have visited This chart indicates the flow in GPM that a pipe size can generally handle: How To Work With Project Management In Sap Business One.pdf. Fluid power formulas fluid power formulas sizing water supply lines gpm to psi conversion chart hoskin 1 5 inch friction loss chart, Pitot gauge conversion chart to gpm pages 1 2 text version pitot gauge conversion chart to gpm pages 1 2 text version aratus for big flow operations you already own them part 1 mon conversions for water resources pressure regulating valve characteristics, Pitot Gauges How Do I Calculate The Psi To Gpm Conversion, How To Estimate The Lication Rate Of Drip And Sprinkler Systems, Pitot Gauge Conversion Chart To Gpm Pages 1 2 Text Version, Chart Of Accounts Structure In Oracle Fusion. you visit or link to our social media pages, data is processed both by us and the applicable social The rounded design has a coefficient of 0.9, meaning there is only a 10 percent decline in water flow due to friction loss. With so much at stake, it’s critical for hydrants to perform as expected during a fire. of certain website content and verifying system and server integrity). Avoid common problems with our, Photoluminescent Emergency Equipment Signs. pages or opened an email and for other related website statistics (for example, recording the Social media providers are unaffiliated with us, and we are not responsible for the The 3. In most modern hydrants, the transition between the vertical barrel of the hydrant and the horizontal outlet is smooth and rounded. But if other variables are known, the water’s flow rate in GPM can be calculated with the help of the Bernoulli equation for incompressible fluid and careful unit conversion. Analyzing the data collected by a pitot gauge can reveal heavy pipe-wall deposits and closed valves that can significantly impede a hydrant’s pressure and flow. Click the window of the units to convert to and choose the units. So the loss would be: 1.2 PSI – 0.9 PSI = 0.3 PSI X 0.707, which is 0.2121 PSI greater than the 0.9 PSI value, or 1.1121 PSI. WATER FLOW THROUGH STEEL OR COPPER PIPE Steel or copper piping is generally sized for water flow that will result in a friction loss of approximately 2 feet of water per 100 feet of pipe length and a velocity of 7 feet per second or less. The outlet is smooth and rounded, meaning it has a coefficient of 0.9. 2. Preparing for a fire inspection? Firefighting operations can be seriously jeopardized if fire hydrants can’t deliver proper water flow. Simply find the pitot pressure reading on the left and slide your finger over to the matching orifice size to reveal the GPM. and opt-out choices, please click here. While testing a single fire hydrant, here’s what we found: So, what’s the total GPM available at normal operating pressure? 174.6 x 7.8740 = 1,375 GPM. In the real world, no orifice is perfect. effectiveness (such as which web pages are visited, which messages are responded to, or what of Step 4: Find the square root of 62 psi, which is 7.8740. Be sure to browse our selection of pitot gauge kits and accessories, including our best-selling Inspector’s Choice Pitot Gauge Kit, which costs a little more but delivers 1 percent full-range accuracy. Since 37.5 GPM is halfway between the two flow readings of 35 and 40 GPM, the interpolation will work out to about 0.707 of the way between 0.9 and 1.2 PSI loss (again the square function). visit and details of your transaction activity, such as the amount, date and time for each Click the "Convert" button and enter the known units value. Compare your findings to the three general types of hydrant outlets in the diagram above to determine the coefficient of discharge. browser setting to decline the use of Cookies. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. it. You can deactivate Google Analytics using a browser add-on if you do not wish the Could you tell me the price for The Inspector’s Choice Pitot Gauge Kit. content or privacy practices of social media providers. You can download the add-on here: www.tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout. But it’s important to keep in mind that the table is based on using a coefficient discharge of 1 in the formula, which is the theoretical discharge from a perfect circular orifice. We use Google Analytics, a web analytics service of Google Inc. (“Google”) which uses cookies to Report DMCA. Click the window of the units to convert from and choose the units. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. To read the complete Privacy Policy and Terms and Conditions governing your use of QRFS.com, please information behalf And that’s where it gets a little tricky. In this blog, we will take you step-by-step through the process of converting a pitot gauge’s PSI reading to GPM. can be tied to information about your use of the website (including certain third party services and In the diagram below, consider the difference between the transitions (which look like wings on either side of the middle rectangle) in the first two outlet drawings. The content on this website in no way eliminates the need for assessment and advice from a life safety professional, the services of which should be employed in all situations.

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