Louis XIV is notorious for his overbearing approach to foreign policy. The general settlement recognised Philip V as King of Spain and ruler of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. By the 1680s, Louis XIV had begun to generate public hostility, due, in part, to his efforts to establish religious uniformity throughout France. Louis XIII and Anne had a second child, Philippe d'Anjou (soon to be Philippe I, Duc d'Orléans) in 1640. That was a very hard step for him - his love was so strong, that he wanted Maria Mancini to be his wife, although he was a king. After the first Fronde (Fronde Parlementaire) ended, the second Fronde, that of the princes, began in 1650. Louis XIV's most famous minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who died in 1683, exercised a tremendous influence on the royal treasury and coffers — the royal revenue had tripled under his supervision. The Pope was not allowed to send papal legates to France without the king's consent; such legates as could enter France, furthermore, required further approval before they could exercise their power. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. She was niece of Cardinal Mazarin. The Marquise, caught up in the vast Affair of the Poisons and neglected by the King, finally retired from the court in 1691 and moved to the convent of Saint-Joseph in Paris. Thanks to the ambiguous nature of treaties of the time, Louis was able to claim that the territories ceded to him in previous treaties ought to be ceded along with all their dependencies and lands which had formerly belonged to them, but had separated over the years, as had in fact been stipulated in the peace treaties. As William III had developed an enmity against Louis XIV during the Dutch War, he pushed England into the League of Augsburg, which then became known as the Grand Alliance. King Louis himself was also known for his bad smelling breath, the main reason for this was the bad condition of his jaws. Faced with the threat of the spread of war and having signed a secret treaty partitioning the Spanish succession with the Emperor, the other major claimant, Louis XIV agreed to make peace. He also found himself descended from the founder of the Rurik dynasty, Rurik the Viking, Charles I "le Téméraire", Duc de Bourgogne, the poet Charles, Duc d'Orléans, and Giovanni de' Medici, last of the great Condottieri. Thus, Louis was continuing the work of the Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. France and Austria were the main claimants to the throne, both of which had close family ties to the Spanish royal family. His numerous wars and extravagant palaces and châteaux effectively bankrupted the State (though it must also be said that France was able to recover in a matter of years), forcing him to levy higher taxes on the peasants and incurring large State debts from various financiers as the nobility and clergy had exemption from paying these taxes and contributing to public funds.

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