Frederick frequently led his military forces personally. [26]​ Esta fue la segunda batalla real en la que Federico comandó sus ejércitos desde su ascenso al trono, y su dramática victoria le permitió obligar a los austríacos a negociar la paz que terminaría con la que sería conocida como la Primera Guerra de Silesia (1740-1742). Shortly after becoming King in Prussia, he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars. The king briefly threatened the crown prince with execution, then considered forcing Frederick to renounce the succession in favour of his brother, Augustus William, although either option would have been difficult to justify to the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Desiring the prosperous Austrian province of Silesia, Frederick declined to endorse the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism to ensure the inheritance of the Habsburg domains by Maria Theresa of Austria. Dorpalen says: "The book was indeed a very courageous indictment of Hitler's irrationalism and recklessness, his ideological fanaticism and insatiable lust for power". [114] Consequently, Frederick continues to be held in high regard as a military theorist the world over. He composed, played the flute and studied the works of the philosophers. Frederick the Great: A Historical Profile. [a] His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his reorganization of Prussian armies, his military victories, his success in the Silesian wars and the Partitions of Poland, and his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment. [4] Under his reign the codification known as Allgemeines Preußisches Landrecht, initiated by Frederick II, continued and was completed in 1794.[5]. [81] Frederick II settled 300,000 colonists in territories he had conquered, and enforced Germanization.[82]. In contrast when we looked towards the north, from there shone Frederick, the Pole Star, around whom Germany, Europe, even the world seemed to turn ...[144]. [122] Frederick was known to be more tolerant of Jews and Catholics than many neighboring German states. Al controlar esta nueva provincia, Prusia también pasó a controlar el navegable río Óder. As neighboring countries began conspiring against him, Frederick preemptively invaded Saxony, thus beginning the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). Frederick William became heir-presumptive to the throne of Prussia on his father's death in 1758, since Frederick II had no children. His circle of friends at Sanssouci gradually died off without replacements, and Frederick became increasingly critical and arbitrary, to the frustration of the civil service and officer corps. [9], In the mid-1720s, Queen Sophia Dorothea attempted to arrange the marriage of Frederick and his sister Wilhelmine to her brother King George II's children Amelia and Frederick, respectively. Sanssouci, which translates from French as "carefree" or "without worry", was a refuge for Frederick. He became known as Frederick the Great (German: Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("The Old Fritz") by the Prussian people and eventually the rest of Germany.[1]. Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712, baptised with the single name Friedrich. Her grandfather, George, Prince-Elector of Hanover, was the heir of Queen Anne of Great Britain. As Frederick grew, his preference for music, literature and French culture clashed with his father's militarism, resulting in Frederick William frequently beating and humiliating him. [140] He discarded many Baroque era authors as uncreative pedants and especially despised German theatre. About a thousand new villages were founded in his reign that attracted 300,000 immigrants from outside Prussia. Frederick repeatedly emphasized that nationality and religion were of no concern to him.[15]. Under the terms of the Treaty of Dresden, signed on 25 December 1745, Austria was forced to adhere to the terms of the Treaty of Breslau giving Silesia to Prussia.[44]. The Prussian king successfully achieved a rapprochement with Emperor Joseph and the Austrian chancellor Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz. La muerte repentina de la emperatriz Isabel I de Rusia en enero de 1762 llevó al ascenso al trono de Pedro III, con inclinaciones pro-prusianas, y a quien su admiración por Federico le llevó a retirar a Rusia de la guerra.

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